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A credit default swap (CDS) is a credit derivative contract between two counterparties, whereby the "buyer" or "fixed rate payer" pays periodic payments to the "seller" or "floating rate payer" in exchange for the right to a payoff if there is a default or "credit event" in respect of a third party or "reference entity".
If a credit event occurs, the typical contract either settles by delivery by the buyer to the seller of a (usually defaulted) debt obligation of the reference entity against a payment by the seller of the par value ("physical settlement") or the seller pays the buyer the difference between the par value and the market price of a specified debt obligation, typically determined in an auction ("cash settlement").
A credit default swap resembles an insurance policy, as it can be used by a debt holder to hedge, or insure against a default under the debt instrument. However, because there is no requirement to actually hold any asset or suffer a loss, a credit default swap can also be used for speculative purposes and it is not generally considered insurance for regulatory purposes.
Treasury’s Financial-Bailout Proposal to Congress
Although I think the Fed (Greenspan IR manupulation) and the SEC (leverage ... struggle to put gas in our car, hope we don’t get laid off, stretch our dollars ... is just reeks. this measure needs to be cleaned up becuase the mortgage bailout plan ...
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Source: Wall Street Journal
he news comes as President Bush and other congressional leaders looked to shore up support for the rescue measure, which they and many on Wall Street believe is a difficult but necessary choice to revive moribund credit markets. Banks and other financial houses are hesitant to lend to one another because of fears about bad mortgage debt on companies' books.
Tight lending conditions make it harder and more expensive for businesses and consumers to get a loan, which can hurt the economy.
While congressional leaders said they had the headcount to pass the vote — a Senate vote could come as early as Wednesday — investors were likely to remain unnerved until the votes are complete.
Investors also digested news that consumer spending in August fell to its lowest level in six months. The Commerce Department said consumer spending remained unchanged in August, rather than increasing 0.2 percent as economists had expected and the worst showing since February.
Personal incomes rose a better-than-expected 0.5 percent after falling 0.6 percent drop in July. But after-tax incomes fell by 0.9 percent. Incomes benefited in past months from the government's stimulus checks.
Dow Jones industrial average futures fell 169, or 1.52 percent, to 10,978. Standard & Poor's 500 index futures fell 19.80, or 1.63 percent, to 1,194.70, and Nasdaq 100 index futures fell 30.00, or 1.79 percent, to 1,644.75.
Credit markets remained strained Monday. The yield on the 3-month Treasury bill, considered the safest short-term investment, fell to 0.66 percent from 0.87 percent late Friday. The yield on the T-bill falls as demand grows; investors are at times willing to take the slimmest returns to safeguard their principal. The yield on the benchmark 10-year Treasury note fell to 3.78 percent from 3.84 percent late Thursday.
The dollar was mixed against other major currencies, while gold prices rose.
Light, sweet crude fell $5.19 to $101.70 in premarket electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
To tamp down criticism of the plan, Congress can restrict how much of the money goes out the door at once. It also includes limits on pay packages of top executives as well as assurances that the government also would ultimately be reimbursed by the companies for any losses. The Treasury would be permitted to spend $250 billion to buy banks' risky assets, giving them a much-needed necessary cash infusion. There also would be another $100 billion for use at president's discretion and a final $350 billion if Congress signs off on it.
Investors are also worried about overall sluggishness in the world's economy. In the U.S., for example, unemployment now sits at a five-year high of 6.1 percent. That rate is expected to increase, perhaps putting further pressure on consumer spending, which accounts for more than two-thirds of the nation's economic activity.
For the Wachovia deal, Citigroup's acquisition will include five depository institutions and assume debt. The FDIC said Citigroup will absorb up to $42 billion of losses on a $312 billion pool of loans. The FDIC said it would cover any additional losses. The FDIC gets $12 billion in preferred stock and warrants under the deal. Citi shares fell 5.2 percent in premarket electronic trading.
Investors overseas were nervous ahead of the votes in Washington and after three European governments agreed to inject Fortis NV with a $16.4 billion bailout. Fortis, with has headquarters in Brussels, Belgium and Utrecht, Netherlands, is Belgium's largest retail bank.
The British government said it is nationalizing mortgage lender Bradford & Bingley, which has a $91 billion mortgage and loan portfolio. It was the latest sign that the credit crisis has spread beyond the U.S.
Japan's Nikkei stock average fell 1.26 percent. Britain's FTSE 100 declined 3.23 percent, Germany's DAX index fell 2.75 percent, and France's CAC-40 fell 2.58 percent
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